Day 2 :
- Metabolomics and System Biology | Plant and Environmental Metabolomics | Food Metabolomics
Location: The Westin Miyako Kyoto
Kieu Oanh T Nguyen research interests are on center on small molecule measurements and Metabolomics in plants and thus span the fields of Plant Biology, Chemistry and Bioinformatics. Her activities focus on novel method development and integration between these fields. Her expertise is in the development of screening pipelines for small molecule extraction, isolation and derivatization where necessary, chromatographic separation (liquid and gas chromatography) and detection including mass spectrometry.
Statement of the Problem: Pteris vittata L., a common fern known as Chinese Brake Fern, is native from China and widespread all over the world including Vietnam. It received much attention in recent years because it was known to be a hyper-accumulator plant of arsenic used in phytoremediation. It is also widely used in traditional Chinese medicine for therapeutic applications, such as the treatment of influenza, dysentery, rheumatism, injury and scabies. Previous qualitative phytochemical screening studies on P. vittata have showed the presence of flavonoids, tannins, resins, glycosides and triterpenoids groups in the crude extract of this species. However, it still attracts little attention on its chemical constituents or bioactivities recently. Hence, we attempt to obtain complete metabolite profiling of P. vittata to provide more information about its chemical constituents in this experiment.
Method: Widely targeted metabolomics which is an innovative high-throughput analysis to extend plant metabolites detection based on the optimal single reaction monitoring conditions in triple quadrupole mass spectrometry of thousands authentic compounds in the library, and thus to relative quantify their levels in samples. This sensitive method was applied for 35 root extracts and 35 aerial part methanolic extracts of P.vittata.
Results: In total, 396 metabolites were identified over the limit of detection including 263 primary metabolites and 133 secondary metabolites. Noticeably, the large amount of flavonoids (74), cinnamic acids and derivatives (13), benzoic acids and derivatives (8), coumarins (5), stilbenoids (2), and other phenols (8) change radically our view of this title plant metabolite profile and potentially contribute to the pharmacological activity of P. vittata extracts.
Conclusion: Metabolite profiles of P. vittata which has been reported for the first time can provide comprehensive information for the quality evaluation and further exploitation potential of the plants under study.
Subrahmanyam Vangala is currently Founder and Chief Executive Officer at ReaGene Biosciences Private Limited, Bangalore, India. He is an experienced Pharma Scientist and Executive with more than two decades of leadership experience with increasing responsibilities, at global pharma in USA (Wyeth, JNJ, Purdue Pharma and the Shire) and Contract Research Organizations in India (Sai Life and Advinus). He completed his PhD degree from Memorial University of Newfoundland, Canada. His current research interests include developing in vitro 3D human models of translational pharmacology and toxicology research for improved clinical translation and use as alternatives to animals in research.
Aim: To study the genomics versus metabolomics in disease diagnosis. This study focuses on metabolomics in disease diagnosis and how a combined genotype-phenotype approach can help in accurate disease diagnosis, especially in the early stages of disease.
Method: Despite many technological advances, accurate diagnosis of diseases, it is a major stumbling block in the medical world for an effective precision care for the patient. Disease takes as many as two decades to be detected and the late stage diagnosis are left untreated with many billions of dollars are wasted in patient care. The primary reason is the biology of initiation and progression mechanisms of diseases are far too complex with silent cascade of events over two decades without any major symptoms and thus disease can escape from early diagnosis. Conventional late stage disease diagnosis is aided
by MRI, CT scans, histopathologic analysis of biopsies combined with clinical chemistry but without any curable treatment options. Thus, unfortunately, many a time’s only invasive surgical interventions are applied for the treatment, prolonging the life of the patient, with unaffordable treatment options.
Result: Discovery of novel medicines is also hampered by the complexity of biology of disease progression. In the last two decades, genomics centered diagnostics have become the major focus for identifying disease, but their applications in the medical world for accurate disease diagnosis is still far from reality. In addition, genetic diagnosis is identifying far many mutations in a disease, for example 800 plus mutations in autistic disorders leaving scientific communities perplexed.
Conclusion: Discovering novel early targets of disease initiation process is very crucial and thus amenable for prophylactic
treatments to prevent disease progression.
Prakash Kinthada is a professor at Sree Vidyanikethan Engineering College, JNTU University, India.
Cancer is a dreadful disease and any practical solution in combating this disease is of paramount importance to public health. Cancer patients have burdened by drug induced toxic side effects, and no turned to seek help from the complementary and alternative medicine hoping for a better cure. Research on Platinum based drugs and Non Platinum based drugs is a Multi-Million Dollar Industry in USA and there is every need to produce safe drugs for the cure of this monstrous disease. Flavonoids have a long history of use in traditional medicines in many cultures. The phytochemical, curcumin is one of the major dietary flavonoid, belonging to a group of flavonol, Curcumin is a natural polyphenol. It is highly potential molecule capable of preventing and treating various cancers. Various dietary chemo preventive agents, turmeric powder or its extract are broadly used as therapeutic preparations in Indian System of medicine. We provide a summarized synthesis and structural determination of Curcumin Oxime, Curcumin Thiosemicarbazone derivative of Gold (III) complex. The use of these analogs for prevention of cancer tumor progression and treatments of human malignancies. A pharmacologic agent for treating and/ or preventing cancer, among other diseases and conditions, and particularly breast, prostate and pancreatic cancer, in humans and animals. The novel pharmacologic agent is an isoflavonoid or isoflavonoid mimetic covalently attached to a cytotoxic pharmacophore that, preferably has the ability to conjugate with a metal salt to form a more potent metal complex, particularly a Au (III) complex and other complexes of Platinum, Palladium, Ruthenium, Copper etc. My talk would mainly encompass different Transition Metal Complexes/Organometallic Compounds that are presently used as drugs, especially Anticancer and Anti-HIV drugs, apart from Anti-inflammatory, Antimicrobial, Antibacterial and diseases like Arthritis and Parkinson’s Disease
etc. The talk would mainly focus on the use of Medicinal Chemistry and it’s application to Drug Design and Development in Pharmaceutical Industry, especially transition metal complexes and Organometallic Compounds viz. Gold, Platinum, Palladium And Ruthenium apart from Copper, Cobalt, Iron, Nickel, Zinc, Cadmium etc. The main emphasis of my talk would be on Different class of Ligands, their Schiff ’s Bases and Transition Metal Complexes especially Au, Pt, Pd and Ru, with the main aim of designing, developing very novel small molecules, as possible and extremely potential candidates as Anti-cancer and Anti-HIV drugs. The talk would provide an overview of current programs being undertaken in our laboratories, especially
focused on the development of potent ligands capable of recognizing Binding sites and diverse strategies employed by my group for elucidation of Anti-Cancer and Anti-HIV drug Leads to Circumvent the problem caused by Cis-Platin.We have synthesized and characterized several phytochemicals from Traditional Medicinal Plants and isolated some phytochemicals and made the
corresponding Oximes, Thiosemicarbazones and Substituted thiosemicarbazones as ligands and synthesized, characterized, structurally elucidated their Transition Metal Complexes especially with Gold, Platinum, Palladium, Ruthenium, Copper etc. and Studied their Anticancer Activity, Nuclease activity etc. and tested their potential as Anticancer Drugs. The main aim of our extensive/preclinical Pharmaceutical development program is to investigate the use of these extremely novel small molecules-metal complexes/compounds of phytochemicals, flavanoids etc., which have very interesting structural features and properties and hence are excellent candidates as Anti-Cancer and Anti-HIV drugs .The main aim of our research is Design, Development and Synthesis of Transition Metal Complexes/ Organometallic Compounds that would certainly help to bring this force of nature from BENCH to BEDSIDE and enhance Cancer Killing with less toxic effects and would certainly lead to initiation of clinical trials.