Day 1 :
Vice President- Ajinomoto Co.,Inc, Japan
Keynote: Disease Risk Screening using Plasma Free Amino Acids: Initial Commercialization and Future Potential
Time : 9.50-10.20
Takeshi Kimura is a Board Member and Corporate Vice President for Ajinomoto Co., Inc. and is currently In-Charge of Research and Development, Intellectual Property, Quality Assurance and Regulatory Affairs. He has studied Cell and Molecular Biology at University of London, Kings College and obtained his PhD in Biochemistry from University of London in 1984. He was a Visiting Fellow and Visiting Associate at the National Institutes of Health in the USA before joining Ajinomoto in 1989. He has worked in research, regulatory affairs and quality assurance since then, helping to establish the basis of AminoIndex Technology while in research. He became Corporate Executive Officer in 2009 and Board Member in 2013. He is also a Member of the Board of Trustees for International Life Sciences Institute and Research Foundation, International Advisory Council Member for Monell Chemical Senses Center and Japanese Private Sector Member for APEC Policy Partnership for Food Security
The potential for using plasma amino acids as a metabolomic subset to identify disease risk has been shown and since 2011, a commercial service for several types of cancers (gastric, lung, colorectal, breast, cervical, and prostate cancer) risk screening utilizing plasma free amino acid (PFAA) concentrations, called AminoIndex®, has been available in Japan. Collaborating with two of the largest clinical laboratory testing companies in Japan, AminoIndex® is now available in more than 1,000 hospitals in Japan. In 2015, risk screening for pancreatic cancer, one of the most challenging malignancies to treat, was added. The accumulation of several years of data has allowed the generation of predictive biomarkers and, in 2017, we launched a new biomarker using PFAAs to evaluate the future risk of developing diabetes within four years. We also found sub-populations with decreases in essential and semi-essential amino acids in plasma which could be the result from insufficient protein intake and are following clinical outcomes for this sub-population. Since protein malnutrition is common across varying populations, including the elderly, and could cause increased risk of sarcopenia, heart failure, and impaired immune response, PFAA profiles could be possible biomarkers to perform early nutritional interventions. The possibilities to utilize PFAAs as biomarkers are expanding, and cardiovascular disease and Alzheimer’s disease might be the next possible targets. It is important to distinguish the presymptomatic disease from the truly healthy person for early interventions to reduce medical costs. Utilizing PFAAs as biomarkers for the presymptomatic disease conditions could be the promising way for achieving “precision nutrition” in the future.
Director of the Nutrition and Metabolic Research Laboratory, BPK Department, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, Canada
Keynote: Nutritional and epigenetic aspects of metabolic syndrome, and the search for metabolic pharmacotherapeutics
Time : 11.00-11.20
Dr. A. Vieira is currently Associate Professor, and Director of the Nutrition and Metabolic Research Laboratory, BPK Department, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, Canada. He has over 90 publications, including research papers in major international journals, with over 1500 citations. Dr. Vieira has served as reviewer and editorial board member for journals related to biomedical research, molecular and cellular biology, as well as for educational and scientific books..
Nutritional and epigenetic aspects of metabolic syndrome, and the search for metabolic pharmacotherapeutics
Metabolic syndrome represents a combination of disorders that often include atherogenic dyslipidemias, problems with glucose regulation, obesity and chronic inflammation. Epigenetic regulation refers to chemical, covalent modifications of chromatin that can occur in response to environmental factors including diet (vitamins, nutrients and other food components), physical activity, and exposure to toxins. This presentation will cover the nutritional epigenetics of chronic metabolic disorders, e.g., epigenetic changes associated with obesity, inflammation, insulin resistance, as well as dyslipidemias. The influence of vitamins and other nutrients, as well as that of phytochemicals from plant foods, upon metabolic regulation and energy metabolism will be emphasized. Molecular and cellular assays to identify potentially therapeutic compounds related to these metabolic disorders will also be described, with an emphasis on combination therapies that may contribute to epigenetic reprogramming.
- Frontiers of Metabolomics Research
Prof. Dr. Anil Batta is presently Associate professor and senior consultant in Baba Farid University of Health Sciences/ Govt. Medical College, Amritsar, Punjab, India. He did his M.B.B.S. and M.D. in Medical Biochemistry from Govt. Medical College, Patiala in 1984 and 1991, respectively. His research interest is mainly in clinical application especially cancer and drug de-addiction. He has supervised more than 20 M.D., M.Sc. and Doctorate researches and published more than 70 international research papers. He is the chief editor of America’s Journal of Biochemistry. He is also working as advisor to the editorial board of International Journal of Biological and Medical Research. Recently, he has been deputed advisor to Pakistan Medical Journal of Biochemistry. He has been attached as technical advisor to various national and international conferences in Biochemistry. He has been attached as hi-tech endocrinal, genetics and automated labs of GGS Medical College, Faridkot. He has chaired various sessions in the Biochemistry meets.
Biochemical approach to diagnose myocardial infarction
Diagnostic criteria for AMI have classically been based on the triad of history, ECG and measurement of cardiac enzymes. The choice of 'cardiac enzymes' has been dictated by the evolution of laboratory techniques, commencing with measurement of aspartate transaminase and progressing to measurement of creatine kinase (CK) and its MB isoenzyme (CK-MB). Measurement of CK-MB has been shown by both clinical studies and rigorous statistical analysis to represent the best test for the diagnosis of AMI. Development of immunoassays for the cardiac troponins, i.e. cardiac troponin T (cTnT) and cardiac troponin (cTnI), has enhanced diagnostic specificity. These measurements are completely specific for cardiac damage, allow quantization of the extent of infarction and are diagnostically superior to CK-MB measurement. The majority require risk stratification into high- and low-risk groups. It is here that cardiac troponins have a major role. The measurement of cTnT has been shown in a large number of studies to enable risk stratification of patients with unstable angina. The combination of cTnT, admission ECG and stress ECG can be used for a comprehensive risk stratification of patients with unstable angina. The combination of cTnT, admission ECG and stress ECG can be used for a comprehensive risk stratification which can be completed by 24 h from admission, as well as allowing a safe discharge policy from the ED. Measurements of cardiac troponins can also be used to predict prognosis in patients with other diagnostic categories. Patients with cardiac failure can be risk stratified according to cTnT status. cTnT status on admission allows subdivision into high- and low-risk groups in patients presenting with ST segment elevation. Certainly, cTnT measurement can be incorporated into a clinical decision-making strategy to assign patients to investigation and management pathways. There is evidence that cTnT may be useful to guide therapeutic options. Improvements in diagnostic accuracy can reduce inappropriate long-term drug therapy. Finally, use of point-of-care testing (POCT) means that biochemical testing can be précised. It is important to establish as soon as possible whether patients who present with chest pain are having an acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Ideally, sensitive and specific serum myocardial markers could provide the basis for early detection as well as determine the status of reperfusion following thrombolytic therapy. In the ED study, CK-MB, myoglobin, and cTnI were equally sensitive (100%) for the detection of AMI in patients who presented 7.4-14 h after onset of chest pain. However, cTnI was the most specific serum marker (specificity 91.9% compared to CK-MB 85.6 %,).. Within the reperfused group, the relative increase of cTnT was greater than CK-MB. These findings show the clinical utility of cardiac-specific troponins as markers for the early detection of AMI and monitoring of reperfusion following thrombolytic therapy. The cardiac troponins, in particular, have become the cardiac markers of choice for patients with ACS. Indeed, cardiac troponin is central to the definition of acute myocardial infarction (MI) in the consensus guidelines. These changes were instituted following the introduction of increasingly sensitive and precise troponin assays.Note that cardiac markers are not necessary for the diagnosis of patients who present with ischemic chest pain and diagnostic ECGs with ST-segment elevation. These patients may be candidates for thrombolytic therapy or primary angioplasty. Treatment should not be delayed to wait for cardiac marker results, especially since the sensitivity is low in the first 6 hours after symptom onset. The objective of this study was to compare the levels of troponins and enzymes levels in myocardial infarction and skeletal muscle injury. This study was carried out in GGS Medical College & Hospital, Faridkot, Punjab and India. Fifty subjects selected were cases suffering from myocardial infarction. Fifty patients were selected as control. These were the persons who were healthy & accompanying the patients. Creatine kinase, aspartate amino-transferase, lactate dehydrogenase and Troponin T were determined by kit methods. Troponin I level rises significantly (p<0.01) in patients suffering from myocardial infarction. Creatine kinase (CK), CKMB, aspartate aminotransferase and lactate dehydrogenase levels rises significantly (p<0.01) in disease group compared with controls. Troponin T is an early indicator of myocardial infarction and is superior to CKMB in diagnosis of myocardial injury. There is no increase in troponin T levels in skeletal muscle injury.
- Metabolomics in Precision Medicine
Michael Snyder laboratory,United States
Kevin Contrepois is an expert in metabolite profiling using LC-MS. He is the director of metabolomics and lipidomics in Pr. Michael Snyder laboratory at Stanford University, California, USA. By integrating multi-omics data sets, he is interested in the discovery of biomarkers and in understanding the pathogenesis of common diseases (i.e. diabetes, and cardiovascular disorders), with a special emphasis on host-gut microbiome interactions. He has published 9 peer-reviewed articles in top-tier journals (Nature Communications, Cell Systems, Cell Reports) that were cited 146 times. He received his Ph.D. from the University of Paris-Sud (France) in 2012.
- Therapeutic Metabolomics